This new edition includes an update on HIV disease/AIDS, recently developed HIV rapid tests to diagnose HIV infection and screen donor blood, and current information on antiretroviral drugs and the laboratory monitoring of antiretroviral therapy. Information on the epidemiology and laboratory investigation of other pathogens has also been brought up to date. Several new, rapid, simple to perform immunochromatographic tests to assist in the diagnosis of infectious diseases are described, including those for brucellosis, cholera, dengue, leptospirosis, syphilis and hepatitis. Recently developed lgM antibody tests to investigate typhoid fever are also described. The new classification of salmonellae has been introduced. Details of manufacturers and suppliers now include website information and e-mail addresses. The haematology and blood transfusion chapters have been updated, including a review of haemoglobin measurement methods in consideration of the high prevalence of anaemia in developing countries.