The 6th Edition presents a revitalized and strengthened pedagogical framework based on how students learn best. Checkpoints appear throughout the text and direct students to interactive versions of text features in Mastering Microbiology. The interactive features provide just-in-time remediation that helps fill skill gaps and gives students immediate feedback on their progress with the material. New interactive concept maps provide opportunities for students to construct their knowledge and can be assigned in Mastering Microbiology. To emphasize how our understanding of microbiology is constantly expanding, the new edition integrates cutting-edge microbiology research that is critical for today’s students. New Research on Microbial metabolism is introduced in Chapter 5 as well as recent findings on recombinant DNA technology and CRISPR technique are found in Chapter 8.